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Effects of sustainable gases on end-use equipment within the current distribution bands

When will the combustion behavior of sustainable gases, either pure or mixed with natural gas, result in performance in end-use equipment that is outside the range of behavior deemed acceptable when fired with the current range of natural gas in the Dutch G-band?

Howard Levinsky (Photo: EDGaR/Jan Buwalda)

Summary

The dwindling reserves in the Groningen field, the globalization and liberalization of the gas market and the desire to replace fossil fuels by sustainable fuels, such as biogas, are rapidly expanding the variety of gas qualities being supplied to the Netherlands. Since sustainable gases, in the compositions as they are produced, have generally different combustion characteristics than natural gas, the behavior of end-use equipment that has been designed and adjusted for a given natural gas can deviate substantially, and even fail, when fueled with untreated sustainable gases.

How to tell whether a given gas, when supplied to combustion equipment, will result in performance that is outside the range of behavior deemed acceptable when fired with the normal range of natural gas? In essence, one must compare the performance of a new gas with that of the range of natural gases considered acceptable. Rather than the usual empirical approach to studying interchangeability, for example performing experiments on large numbers of practical equipment, we follow a more fundamental approach derived by Gasunie and KEMA. In this approach, each technical phenomenon that is affected by gas composition can be characterized by a given combustion property, which can be used as a scale factor when comparing gases. Thus, stability issues such as flame lift and flashback can be characterized by the burning velocity, which can be computed using current state-of-the-art combustion codes. A key aspect of the method is that one must consider other changes in equipment conditions upon changing gases.

Theme: From monogas to multigas
Leader: Howard Levinsky (DNV GL, on behalf of Gasunie) 
Partners: Kiwa, Gasunie (research performed by DNV GL), University of Groningen, Enexis, Liander, Stedin
Budget: 2.1 million euros
Duration: January 2010 / December 2014

Participants

Harry Darmeveil (DNV GL)
Gerco van Dijk (DNV GL)
Albertus Dijks (DNV GL)
Robert Klein-Douwel (University of Groningen)
Martijn van Essen (DNV GL)
Sander Gersen (DNV GL)
Hans de Laat (Kiwa)
Howard Levinsky (DNV GL)
Anatoli Mokhov (University of Groningen)
Berthil Slim (DNV GL)

Journal article

Gersen, S., A.V. Mokhov, H. Dameveil, H. Levinsky. “Ignition properties of n-butane and iso-butane in a rapid compression machine.Combustion and Flame 157, 2 (2010): 240–245.

Gersen, S., A.V. Mokhov, J.H. Darmeveil, H.B. Levinsky, P. Glarborg. “Ignition-promoting effect of NO2 on methane, ethane and methane/ethane mixtures in a rapid compression machine.Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 33, 1 (2010): 433–440.

Gersen, S., H. Dameveil, H. Levinsky. “The effects of CO addition on the autoignition of H2, CH4 and CH4/H2 fuels at high pressure in an RCM.” Combustion and Flame 159, 12 (2012): 3472–3475.

Mokhov, A.V., B.M. Smirnov, M. Dutka, D. Vainchtein, Howard B. Levinsky, J. Th.M. De Hosson. “Formation of chain aggregates in external electric field.” Chemical Physical Letters 570 (2013): 104-108.

Smirnov, B. M., M. Dutka, V. M. van Essen, S. Gersen, P. Visser, D. Vainchtein, J. Th. M. De Hosson, H. B. Levinsky and A. V. Mokhov. “Growth of fractal structures in flames with silicon admixture.European Physics Letters 98, 6 (2012): letter 66005. 

Turkin, A. A., A. B. Dutka, D. Vainchtein, S. Gersen, V. M. van Essen, P. Visser, A. V. Mokhov, H. B. Levinsky, J. Th. M. de Hosson. “Deposition of SiO2 nanoparticles in heat exchanger during combustion of biogas.” Applied Energy 113 (2014): 1141–8.

Proceedings

 Levinsky, H.B., S. Gersen, M.H. Rothink and G.H.J. van Dijk. ‘Progress towards a method for ranking gases for knock resistance using ignition delay times.’ Proceedings of the European Combustion Meeting (2009).

Thesis

Trijselaar, A. Knock Prediction in Gas Fired Reciprocating Engines. MSc thesis, University of Twente, 2012.

Conference papers

Essen, Martijn van, Sander Gersen, Gerco van Dijk, Albertus Dijks, Howard Levinsky. “A new method for characterizing the knock resistance for gaseous fuels.” Sixth Research Day of the Energy Delta Gas Research, Nunspeet, April 2014. 

Essen, Martijn van, Pieter Visser, Sander Gersen, Howard Levinsky, David Vainchtein, Mikhail Dutka, Anatoli Mokhov. ’Regarding specifications for siloxanes in biomethane for domestic equipment.’ Fifth Research Day of the Energy Delta Gas Research, Nunspeet, 25 April 2013.

Essen, Marijn van, Sander Gersen, Pieter Visser, Robert Klein-Douwel, David Vainchtein, J.Th.M. De Hosson, Anatoli Mokhov and Howard Levinsky. "An experimental study of silica particle growth in premixed laminar flames." COMBURA 2011, Ede, October 2011.

Gersen, S., ‘How accurate does a chemical mechanism have to be to predict engine knock in gas engines?’, RCM workshop, Berkeley, 2014.

Gersen, Sander. “Het gedrag van gasapparatuur en nieuwe gassen”, Monarch Conference, Amsterdam 2013.

Gersen, S., P. Visser, V.M. van Essen, M. Dutka, D.Vainchtein  and H.B. Levinsky, Effects of silica deposition on the performance of domestic equipment, Proceedings of the European Combustion Meeting 2013 in Lund.

Gersen, Sander. “Autoignition properties of gaseous fuels at conditions relevant to gas engines and turbines.” Combustion Research and Application Conference, Maastricht, October 2012.

Gersen, Sander, Gerco van Dijk, Howard Levinsky. ‘A new experimentally tested method to classify gaseous fuels for knock resistance.’ Fourth Research Day of the Energy Delta Gas Research, Hilversum, April, 2012.

Gersen, Sander, M.H. Rotnik, G.H.J. van Dijk, Howard Levinsky. ‘A new experimentally tested method to classify gaseous fuels for knock resistance based on the chemical and physical properties of the gas.’ International Gas Union Research Conference 2011, Seoul, October 2011.

Herdman, J., H. B. Levinsky, A. V. Mokhov. “Silica aggregate size determination using angle-dependent light scattering measurements in methane/hexamethyldisiloxane/air premixed flames.” European Combustion Meeting 2013, Lund, July 2013.

Herdman, J., A. V. Mokhov, H. B. Levinsky. “Angle-dependent light scattering measurements of silica aggregate growth in premixed flames.”  Gordon Research Conference: Laser Diagnostics in Combustion Science, Waterville (N.H.), August 2013.

Herdman, J., , A. V. Mokhov, H. B. Levinsky. “Dual-channel angle-dependent light scattering measurements of silica aggregate growth in premixed flames.” Combura 2013 Combustion Research and Applications, October 2013, Ede, The Netherlands.

Essen, V.M., H. de Vries, Howard Levinsky. ‘Possibilities for admixing gasification gases: combustion aspects in domestic natural gas appliances in the Netherlands.’ International Gas Union Research Conference 2011, Seoul, October 2011.

Levinsky, Howard. "End-use equipment and infrastructure: what’s ‘new’ about new gases, exactly?" Enabling Sustainability with Gas: Closing Conference of the Energy Delta Gas Research, Amsterdam, March 2015.

Levinsky, Howard. “The challenges of new gases for end-use equipment: what do we need today and what do we want tomorrow?” Gas without Frontiers: EDGaR-DVGW First Joint Conference, Arnhem, February 2013. 

Levinsky, H.B., ‘Fuel challenges for gas engines’, RCM workshop, Argonne, August 2012.

Mokhov, Anatoli V. “Nucleation and growth of fractal structures in flames.” 17th Research Workshop Nucleation Theory and Applications, Dubna (Russia), April 2013. 

Slim, Berthil. “Nieuwe uitdagingen door veranderende gaskwaliteit”, Monarch Conference, Amsterdam 2011.

Slim, B.K., H.D. Darmeveil, S. Gersen and H.B.Levinsky. ‘The combustion behaviour of forded-draught industrial burners when fired within the EASEE-gas range of Wobbe Index,’ International Gas Union Research Conference 2011, Seoul, October 2011.

Visser, Pieter, S. Gersen, V.M. van Essen, M. Dutka, D. Vainchtein, J. Th. M. De Hosson and H.B. Levinsky, ‘Effects of silica deposition on the performance of domestic equipment in the Netherlands  ’ International Gas Union Research Conference 2014, Copenhagen, September 2014.

Poster

Essen, Martijn van, Sander Gersen, Gerco van Dijk, Howard Levinsky. “A new method for characterizing the knock resistance for gaseous fuels.” Enabling Sustainability with Gas: Closing Conference of the Energy Delta Gas Research, Amsterdam, March 2015.

Slim, B.K., Harry Darmeveil, Howard Levinsky. ‘The combustion behaviour of forced draught industrial burners when fired within the EASEE-gas range of Wobbe Index.’ Poster at the Fourth Research Day of the Energy Delta Gas Research, Hilversum, April, 2012.

Visser, Pieter, Sander Gersen, Martijn van Essen, Howard Levinsky. “Effects of silica deposition on the performance of domestic equipment.” Enabling Sustainability with Gas: Closing Conference of the Energy Delta Gas Research, Amsterdam, March 2015.

Visser, Pieter , V.M. van Essen, H.B. Levinsky. “Development of a predictive method on soot formation for new gases based on laser induced incandescence measurements.”  Enabling Sustainability with Gas: Closing Conference of the Energy Delta Gas Research, Amsterdam, March 2015.

In the news

"Chaging gas quality and security." Energy Delta Gas Research, 16 April 2013.