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Optimum use of sustainable gases by expanding the distribution band of gas quality

Compared to the small gas distribution band, to what extent would an expanded range of Wobbe Index for natural gases facilitate the integration of sustainable gases, namely the performance of end-use equipment?

Howard Levinsky (Photo: EDGaR/Jan Buwalda)

Following the same approach as used in project ‘Effects of sustainable gases on end-use equipment within the current distribution bands’ (A13), this project characterizes the effects of supplying sustainable gases via the natural gas infrastructure on the behavior of the major classes of end-use equipment in the Netherlands: domestic and commercial, large-scale and industrial, and for power generation. The emphasis of this research will be on what can be referred to as critical issues, related mainly to safety, such as flame lift, flashback, carbon oxide (CO) emissions, engine knock, and unwanted ignition and instability in turbines. Nevertheless, important issues regarding changes in the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and efficiency will also be examined during the natural course of the project. The degree to which widening the range of natural gases also widens the range of acceptable sustainable gas compositions and/or mixtures of sustainable gases with natural gases will be investigated.

Theme: From monogas to multigas
Project leader: Howard B. Levinsky (DNV GL, on behalf of Gasunie) 
Partners: Kiwa, Gasunie (research performed by DNV GL), University of Groningen, Enexis, Liander, Stedin
Budget: 2 million euros
Duration: October 2010 'till January 2015

Participants

Harry Darmeveil (DNV GL)
Gerco van Dijk (DNV GL)
Albertus Dijks (DNV GL)
Martijn van Essen (DNV GL)
Sander Gersen (DNV GL)
Hans de Laat (Kiwa)
Howard B. Levinsky (DNV GL)
Anatoli Mokhov (University of Groningen)
Berthil Slim (DNV GL)

Journal articles

Gersen, Sander, Martijn van Essen,  Gerco van Dijk, Howard Levinsky. “Physicochemical effects of varying fuel composition on knock characteristics of natural gas mixtures.” Combustion and Flame 161 (2014): 2729–37.

Gersen, Sander, H. Dameveil, Howard Levinsky. “The effects of CO addition on the autoignition of H2, CH4 and CH4/H2 fuels at high pressure in an RCM.” Combustion and Flame 159, 12 (2012): 3472–3475.

Gersen, Sander, A.V. Mokhov, J.H. Darmeveil, Howard B. Levinsky, P. Glarborg. “Ignition-promoting effect of NO2 on methane, ethane and methane/ethane mixtures in a rapid compression machine.” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 33, 1 (2011): 433–440.

Slim, B.K., H.D. Darmeveil, S. Gersen, H.B.  Levinsky. “The combustion behaviour of forced-draught industrial burners when fired within the EASEE-gas range of Wobbe Index.” Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 3 (2011): 642-45. 

Poster

Essen, Martijn van, Sander Gersen, Gerco van Dijk, Howard Levinsk. “Two-zone thermodynamic model for predicting knock in spark ignition gas engine.” European Combustion Meeting, Lund, April 2013.

Essen, Martijn van, Sander Gersen, Howard Levinsky. “Two-zone thermodynamic model for predicting knock in spark ignition gas engine.” Fifth Research Day of the Energy Delta Gas Research, Nunspeet, April 2013.

Essen, Martijn van, Sander Gersen, Pieter Visser, Berthil Slim, Harmen de Vries, Harry Darmeveil, Gerco van Dijk, Howard Levinsky. “Things to consider for domestic appliances when introducing sustainable gases.” Enabling Sustainability with Gas: Closing Conference of the Energy Delta Gas Research, Amsterdam, March 2015.

V.M. van Essen, S. Gersen, G.H.J. van Dijk, H. Levinsky , NEXT GENERATION KNOCK CHARACTERIZATION, IGRC 2014. Copenhagen.

S. Gersen, “What are the challenges of hydrogen addition for end-use equipment?” North Sea P2G Platform 2014, Frankfurt

Gersen, Sander, Gerco van Dijk, Howard Levinsky. “A new experimentally tested method to classify gaseous fuels for knock resistance.” Fourth Research Day of the Energy Delta Gas Research, Hilversum, April, 2012.

Laat, Hans de. “Small / wide gas: het effect van duurzame gassen op toestellen bij eindverbruikers, binnen en buiten de huidige kwaliteitsband van aardgas in Nederland.” Themamiddag EDGaR, Apeldoorn, April 2013.

Slim, B.K. et al. “The combustion behaviour of forced-draught industrial burners when fired within the EASEE-gas range of Wobbe Index." IGRC, 2011.

Pieter Visser, Martijn van Essen, Sander Gersen en  Prof. dr. Howard Levinsky, Development of a predictive method to analyze the effect of sustainable gases on soot, fifth EDGaR research day 2013, Nunspeet

Conference papers

Dijk, G.H.J. van, A. Dijks, S. Gersen, H.B. Levinsky, V.M. van Essen. “Ranking the knock resistance of gaseous fuels by their physical and chemical properties.” CIMAC 2013, Shanghai, May 2013.

Essen, Martijn van, Sander Gersen, Gerco van Dijk, Albertus Dijks, Howard Levinsky. “A new method for characterizing the knock resistance for gaseous fuels.” Sixth Research Day of the Energy Delta Gas Research, Nunspeet, April 2014. 

Essen, Martijn van, Sander Gersen, Gerco van Dijk, Albertus Dijks, Howard Levinsky. “A new method for characterizing the knock resistance for gaseous fuels.” PowerGen, Keulen, June 2014.

Essen, V.M. van, S. Gersen, G.H.J. van Dijk, H. Levinsky, A. Dijks. “Two-zone thermodynamic model to predict temporal variations in pressure of the end gas in an engine cylinder cycle.” Tagung Der Arbeitsprozess des Verbrennungsmotors, Graz, September 2013.

Essen, V.M. van, S. Gersen, G.H.J. van Dijk, H. Levinsky. “Next generation knock characterization.” International Gas Union Research Conference, Copenhagen, September 2014.

Essen, Martijn van, Sander Gersen, Gerco Van Dijk, Howard Levinsky. "Two-Zone Thermodynamic Model to Predict Temporal Variations in Pressure of the End Gas in an Engine Cylinder Cycle." 11th International Conference on Engines and Vehicles, September 2013, Capri, Italy (SAE Technical Paper 2013-24-0028, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-24-0028)

Essen, Martijn van, Sander Gersen, Gerco van Dijk, Howard Levinsk. “Two-zone thermodynamic model for predicting knock in spark ignition gas engine.” European Combustion Meeting, Lund, April 2013. 

Gersen, Sander. “Autoignition properties of gaseous fuels at conditions relevant to gas engines and turbines.” Combustion Research and Application Conference, Maastricht, October 2012.

Gersen, Sander, Gerco van Dijk, Howard Levinsky. “A new experimentally tested method to classify gaseous fuels for knock resistance.” Fourth Research Day of the Energy Delta Gas Research, Hilversum, April, 2012.

Laat, Hans de. “Small / wide gas: het effect van duurzame gassen op toestellen bij eindverbruikers, binnen en buiten de huidige kwaliteitsband van aardgas in Nederland.” Themamiddag EDGaR, Apeldoorn, April 2013.

Levinsky, Howard, Sander Gersen, Martijn van Essen, Pieter Visser. “New results on the formation of silica from siloxane-containing gases in domestic appliances.” American Gas Association Operations Conference, San Francisco, May 2012.

Slim, B.K., H.D. Darmeveil, Sander Gersen, Howard Levinsky. “The combustion behaviour of forded-draught industrial burners when fired within the EASEE-gas range Wobbe index.” International Gas Union Research Conference 2011, Seoul, October 2011.

Slim, B. 'Gaskwaliteit en het weer, invloed op branderafstelling.' 2e bijeenkomst BVS SCIOS bedrijven, 2011.