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New gas sensors

Is it possible to demonstrate a gas meter and gas appliance with special sensors for safe and efficient use of new gases, in order to facilitate the transition to a sustainable energy infrastructure in the most cost-efficient way?

Wim Haije (Photo: EDGaR/Jan Buwalda)

Summary

There is a lack of fundamental and practical knowledge to answer the research question. To this end, the following specific research items will be investigated:

  • How to measure a CH4, H2, CO, CO2, N2, CxHy composition measurement in a reliable, safe and cost effective way?
  • Which risks of cross contaminations can be expected for the different components, what detections systems are employable and what are the risks of memory effects?
  • What about long term stability?
  • Is it possible to control the dynamic and complex reaction processes using a limited set of control parameters delivered by the new gas sensor system?
  • What is the ultimate range of gas qualities the systems can handle?
  • Is it possible to produce a proof of principle for a universal gas boiler and new gas meter? and what level of performance is required by the prototypes to win over the various stake-holders?
  • Are new gas sensor systems at the end the most cost effective solution for transition to a sustainable (gas) energy infrastructure? Is conversion of end user systems indeed more cost effective than conversion of biogas to pseudo G-gas?
  • What threats to the concept can be expected from international competition legislation and pipe line integrity?

Theme: From monogas to multigas
Leader: Wim Haije (ECN)
Partners: ECN, Gasunie (research performed by DNV GL), Delft University of Technology
Budget: 1 million euro
Duration: January 2010 / December 2014

Participants 

Frits Bakker (ECN)
Bernard Dam (Delft University of Technology)
Sander Gersen (Gasunie/DNV GL)
G. de Graaf (Delft University of Technology)
Wim Haije (ECN)
M. Slaman (Delft University of Technology)
Jan Willem Turkstra (Gasunie/DNV GL)
Ruud Westerwaal (Delft University of Technology)
Reinoud Wolffenbuttel (Delft University of Technology)

Journal articles

Perrotton, C., R.J. Westerwaal, N. Javahiraly, M. Slaman, H. Schreuders, B. Dam, P. Meyrueis. "'A reliable, sensitive and fast optical fiber hydrogen sensor based on surface plasmon resonance." Optics Express 21, (2013): 382–390.

Westerwaal, R.J. , J.S.A. Rooijmansa, L. Leclercqa, D.G. Gheorgheb, T. Radevaa, L. Mooija, T. Maka, L. Polakc, M. Slamanc, B. Dama, Th. Rasingb. "Nanostructured Pd–Au based fiber optic sensors for probing hydrogen concentrations in gas mixtures." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 38, 10 (2013): 4201–4212.

Westerwaal, R.J., N. Duim, I. Nieuwenhuijse, C. Perrotton, A. Dabirian, J.M. van Leeuwen, V. Palmisano, B. Dam. "Thin film based sensors for a continuous monitoring of hydrogen concentrations." Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 165 (2012): 88–96.

Westerwaal, R.J., S. Gersen, P. Ngene, H. Darmeveil, H. Schreuders, J. Middelkoop, B. Dam. "Fiber optic hydrogen sensor for a continuously monitoring of the partial hydrogen pressure in the natural gas grid." Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 199 (2014): 127–132.

Master

Bouman, E.A. “Pd-alloy dense metal membranes for hydrogen separation.” MS.c. thesis, Delft University of Technology, 2012.

Gorte, Frank. "Acoustic Design and Scaling Aspects of a Photoacoustic Sensor System for Combustible Gases." MSc. thesis, Delft University of Technology, 2012.

Mak, T. “Thin film based optical fiber hydrogen sensor: Detection of hydrogen gas dissolved in transformer oil.” MSc. Thesis, Delft University of Technology, 2012.

Voorderhake, Sebastiaan. "Micro Spectrometer for the Measurement of the Composition of New Gas." MSc. thesis, Delft University of Technology, 2012.

Proceeding

Slaman, M., R. Westerwaal, H. Schreuders, and B. Dam. “Optical hydrogen sensors based on metal-hydrides.” Proceedings SPIE 8368, Photonic Applications for Aerospace, Transportation, and Harsh Environment III, 836805 (2012).

Ayerden, N.P., M. Ghaderi, G. de Graaf and R.F. Wolffenbuttel. “Design and fabrication of lossy Fabry-Pwerot detector for Infrared absorption spectroscopy on combustible gases.” Proceedings of the 24th Micromechanics and Microsystems Europe Conference, Espoo, Finland, September 2013.

Graaf, G. de, R.F. Wolffenbuttel. ‘Surface micromachined thermal conductivity detectors for gas sensing.’ Proceedings of the International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (IEEE International 2012): 1861-1864.

Graaf, G. de, F. Bakker and R.F. Wolffenbuttel. ‘Sensor platform for gas composition measurement.’ Procedia Engineering, 25 (2011): 1157–1160.

Graaf, G. de, F. Bakker, S. Gersen and R.F. Wolffenbuttel, “Fabrication and testing of surface-micromachined thermal conductivity based gas sensors.” Proceedings of the 24th Micromechanics and Microsystems Europe Conference, Espoo, Finland, September 2013.

Ghaderi, M., N.P. Ayerden, A. Emadi, P. Enoksson, J.H. Correia, G. de Graaf and R.F. Wolffenbuttel. “LVOF-based IR microspectrometer for gas composition measurement.” Proceedings of the 24th Micromechanics and Microsystems Europe Conference, Espoo, Finland, September 2013.

Graaf, G. de, F. Bakker and R.F. Wolffenbuttel. “Sensor platform for gas composition measurement.” Proceedings of the conference Sense of Contact, Woudschoten, April 2011.

Dias, R.A., G. de Graaf, R.F. Wolffenbuttel and L.A. Rocha. “Gas viscosity MEMS sensor based on pull-in.” Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Transducers and Eurosensors, June 2013 (IEEE, 2013): 980–83.

Conference papers

Bakker, Frits, Wim Haije. “New gas sensors.” Sixth Research Day of the Energy Delta Gas Research, Nunspeet, April 2014.

Gersen, Sander. “A control system for all gas compositions.” Enabling Sustainability with Gas: Closing Conference of the Energy Delta Gas Research, Amsterdam, March 2015.

Gersen, Sander, Pieter Visser, Frits Bakker, Ger de Graaf, Reinoud Wolffenbuttel, Ruud Westerwaal, Bernard Dam. “Development of a domestic boiler suited for all gaseous fuels.” Fifth Research Day of the Energy Delta Gas Research, Nunspeet, April 2013.

Graaf, G. de, R.F. Wolffenbuttel. “Surface micromachined thermal conductivity detectors for gas sensing.” 2014 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Graz, May 2012.

Graaf, G. de, F. Bakker, S. Gersen and R.F. Wolffenbuttel. “Fabrication and testing of a surface micromachined thermal conductivity based gas sensors.” 24th Micromechanics and Microsystems Europe Conference, Espoo, September 2013.

Westerwaal, R.J. “A fast, sensitive, and continuous fiber optic sensor for monitoring hydrogen concentrations.” Presentation at Delft University of Technology, October 2012. 

Westerwaal, Ruud J., E. Bouman, Wim Haije, Bernard Dam, R. Griessen. “Combinatorial technique to screen Pd alloys for an improved membrane performance.” Dutch Membrane Society/Belgian Membrane Society Poster Day, Amsterdam, June 2012.

Westerwaal, R.J., C. Perrotton, M. Slaman, B. Dam. “Pd-based fiber optic hydrogen sensor for monitoring hydrogen concentrations.” Neutrons for Energy, Delft, September 2012.

Westerwaal, R.J., N. Duim, I. Nieuwenhuisje, J. van Leeuwen, M. Salman, V. Palmisano, A. Dabirian, B. Dam. ‘Thin film based chemical sensors for monitoring H2.’ Science Day, Delft, June 2011.

Westerwaal, R.J. “Waterstoftechnologie: toepassingen, huidige status en uitdagingen.” Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, September 2011.

Westerwaal, R.J., N. Duim, I. Nieuwenhuisje, J. van Leeuwen, M. Salman, V. Palmisano, A. Dabirian, B. Dam. “Pd-Ta thin film based hydrogen sensors for monitoring hydrogen concentrations.” Symposium Advances in Dutch Hydrogen and Cell Fuel Cell Research, Eindhoven, March 2011.

Other publications

Gersen, Sander, Harry Darmeveil, Rene Hegge. ‘Eén CV-ketel voor alle brandbare gassen.’ STW Brandbrief, no 19 (2012), pp. 11–13.

Poster

Bakker, Frits. "New gas sensor project." 7th International Gas Analysis Symposium and Exhibition, Rotterdam, June 2013.

De Graaf, Geert, Frits Bakker, R.F. Wolffenbuttel. ‘Sensor platform for gas composition measurement.’ Poster at the Fourth Research Day of the Energy Delta Gas Research, Hilversum, April, 2012.

De Graaf, Ger, Frits Bakker, Reinoud F. Wolffenbuttel. ‘Sensor platform for gas composition measurement’. Poster at the 15th Eurosensor Congress, Athens, September 2011.

Westerwaal, R.J., E. Bouman, W. Haije, B. Dam, R. Griessen. “Combinatorial technique to screen Pd alloys for an improved membrane performance.” NMG/BMG Poster day, Amsterdam, June 2013.

Westerwaal, R.J., C. Perrotton, M. Slaman, B. Dam. “Pd-based fiber optic hydrogen sensor for monitoring hydrogen concentrations, neutrons for energy.” Poster at Delft University of Technology, September 2012.

Westerwaal, R.J., P. Ngene, M. Slaman, B. Dam. “In-situ monitoring of H2 concentrations in gas mixtures using a fiber optic thin metal film sensor.” NWO Study groups Scientific meeting on Chemistry in relation to Physics & Material Sciences, Veldhoven, March 2013. 

Westerwaal, R.J., N. Duim, I. Nieuwenhuisje, J. van Leeuwen, M. Salman, V. Palmisano, A. Dabirian, B. Dam. ‘Thin film based chemical sensors for monitoring H2.’ NOW Scientific Meeting on Chemistry, Veldhoven, March 2011.

Westerwaal, R.J., N. Duim, I. Nieuwenhuisje, J. van Leeuwen, M. Salman, V. Palmisano, A. Dabirian, B. Dam. ‘Thin film based chemical sensors for monitoring H2.’ Science Day, Delft, June 2011.

Report

Graaf, G. de. “Dielectric gas sensing using MEMS devices.” Delft University of Technology, Electronic Instrumentation Laboratory, non-published report, November 2013.

“Eindrapportage Ontwikkeling van CV ketel die geschikt is voor alle gasvormige brandstoffen.” Non-published report. 

In the news

Maaike Noordhuis. "Kwaliteit van gas wordt minder belangrijk voor boilers of HR-ketels." Energeia, 27 May 2014. 

“Fiber optic hydrogen sensing.” Delft University of Technology, website.